Last revised: April 24, 2019
ATC - 25 Best Years -
Album # 4A.
APOLLO 1 - CAPE CANAVERAL, FL
January 27, 1967 - Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first manned mission of the United States Apollo program, which had its ultimate goal a manned lunar landing. The low Earth orbital test of the Apollo Command/Service Module never made its target launch date of February 21, 1967. A cabin fire during a launch rehearsal killed all three crew members: Command Pilot Virgil "Gus" Grissom; Senior Pilot Edward H. White II, and Pilot Roger B. Chaffee, and destroyed the Command Module.
Grissom, Chaffee and White entered the Command Module
fully pressure-suited, and were strapped into their seats and hooked up to
the spacecraft's oxygen and communication systems. After all the hatches
were sealed, the air in the cabin was replaced with pure oxygen, higher
than atmospheric pressure. Grissom had a stuck-open microphone - part of a
problem with the communications loop connecting the crew with the
operations building and the blockhouse control room.
Flames and gases then rushed outside the Command Module through open access panels. Intense heat, dense smoke, and ineffective gas masks designed for toxic fumes rather than heavy smoke hampered the ground crew's attempts to rescue the men.
The review board several factors which combined to cause
the fire and the astronauts' deaths: 1. an ignition source related to
"vulnerable wiring carrying spacecraft power" and "vulnerable plumbing
carrying a combustible and corrosive coolant" 2. A pure oxygen
atmosphere at higher than atmospheric pressure. 3. A cabin sealed
with a hatch cover which could not be quickly removed at high pressure.
4. An extensive distribution of combustible materials in the cabin.
4. Inadequate emergency preparedness (rescue or medical assistance, and
CV-580 Crash -Ohio
A defect in the Convair CV-580 caused the torque cylinder in the right engine to fail. Prop pressure oil was lost and the propeller oversped and all four blades separated. The number 2 blade entered the fuselage, ripping it apart. The failure of the fuselage and engine both caused the plane to crash. (38 Fatalities)
The cause was the this crash was determined to be the propeller defect
and subsequent failure.
April 1, 1967 - The Department of Transportation (DOT), with Alan S. Boyd as the first Secretary of the DOT, began operations. The FAA ceased to be the independent Federal Aviation Agency and became the Federal Aviation Administration within the new Department of Transportation.
Alan Stephenson Boyd was appointed by President Lyndon Johnson as the first U.S. Secretary of Transportation. He served in executive positions with the Civil Aeronautics Board, the U.S. Department of Commerce, and was a president of Amtrak.
He graduated from the University of Florida, and after serving in the
U.S. Army Air Forces he returned to college and received his Juris
Doctorate from the University of Virginia School of Law.
(Mid-Air Collision) -Urbana, Ohio
March 9, 1967 - Urbana, OH - Mid-Air collision between a TWA DC-9 and a Beechcraft Baron 55. TWA was descending to land at Dayton Municipal Airport in uncontrolled airspace, in VFR conditions, and collided with the Beech Baron that was not in contact with air traffic control.
The NTSB determined that, due to the high rate of descent
of the DC-9, its pilots were unable to see the other plane in time
to avoid a collision. All four crew members and 21 passengers on the
DC-9 were killed as was the sole occupant of the Baron.
|The FAA now requires all aircraft operating below 10,000 feet to maintain speeds below 250 knots IAS. The FAA also decided to create Terminal Control Areas (TCA) around the busiest airports in the nation.|
|April 28, 1967 - The McDonnell Douglas Corporation was organized as a result of a merger between the Douglas Aircraft Company and the McDonnell Company. Douglas had been founded in 1920, McDonnell in 1939.|
BAC 1-11 Crash -Pennsylvania
The flight was cleared to climb to 16,000 feet, and 9 minutes later several eyewitnesses saw large pieces of the tail plane break away from the plane, and flames and smoke coming from the fuselage.
The CAB found that a non-return valve in the auxiliary power unit (APU)
had suffered a complete failure. This allowed bleed air from the engine to
flow through the system in the wrong direction. This air exited at the
start of the system at sufficient temperatures to ignite components. The
fire quickly spread to the hydraulics and moved along the hydraulic lines
to the rear of the plane where it caused heavy damage to the tail, causing
a loss of pitch control which sent the plane diving to the ground.
|The FAA issued an Airworthiness Directive to prevent heat damage or fire in the airframe plenum of the auxiliary power unit installation.|
1967 - IBM, which wrote the software for the NAS En Route Stage A system, had to double the amount of memory it had originally anticipated before it could deliver the operational prototype of the 9020 IBM Computer which was installed at the Jacksonville ARTCC in 1967.
(Mid-Air Collision) -North Carolina
The cause was the deviation from IFR clearance by the Cessna pilot and a confusing transmission by ATC.
The FAA recommended a review of minimum pilot skill levels required for instrument flight certification.
New (Gulfstream-II) New
October 19, 1967 - The Grumman Gulfstream-II (19 passengers), a two-engine corporate jet with a crew of two was type-certified by the FAA.
The Gulfstream-II has a maximum speed of 580 mph, cruise speed of 480 mph, range of over 4,000 miles and a service ceiling of 45,000'. It's maximum gross weight is 65,000 lbs, and uses two Rolls-Royce Spey 511-8 turbofan engines.
In 1988 a new round-the-world flight record was set by a Gulfstream-IV in 35 hours and 54 minutes (over 23,125 miles).
On May 3, 1982 a Gulfstream-II from the Algerian government was
shot down by a fighter jet in the border area of Iraq, Iran and Turkey.
All 15 people on board, including the Algerian foreign minister, Mohammed
Seddik Ben Yahia, were killed.
November 6, 1967 - Cincinnati, Ohio -
A TWA B-707 from New York
to Los Angeles crashed after an attempt to abort takeoff after having
clipped a Delta DC-9 which was reported to have cleared the runway
but was not clear. However, the TWA B-707 did not clip the DC-9.
Special recognition and thanks to the Copilot on Delta's DC-9 for the following clarity of the events of this crash:
Probable cause: The TWA crew's inability to successfully abort
takeoff due to the speed of the jet, and that a runway overrun was
unavoidable. The NTSB determined that TWA had an 'accident'
and Delta had an 'incident'.
FAA established and publicized new standards of safe clearance from
runway edges for both aircraft and ground vehicles. Previously, there was
confusion as to the definition of the phrase
"clear of the runway," which also takes into account the
exhaust fumes of jet engines.
They also recommended a re-evaluation of airline training manuals and aircraft procedures in regards to aborted flight procedures.
November 20, 1967 - Cincinnati, OH - TWA Flight 128, a Convair-880 from LAX to BOS (with stops in CIN and PIT) crashed on approach to the Greater Cincinnati Airport. The flight descended too fast and crashed and burned short of the runway. 70 people were killed and 12 were injured. (70 Fatalities)
The NTSB determined the probable cause of the accident to be crew error in
attempting a night, visual no glide slope approach during deteriorating
weather conditions without adequate altimeter cross reference.
New (Boeing-737) New
Boeing 737 Original Series
Boeing produced nine different models of the B-737 (-100, -200) with JT8D engines. Only 30 B-737-100's were delivered and none remain in service today.
The B-737-200 had an extended fuselage with improved aerodynamics, automatic wheel brakes, more powerful JT8D engines, and more fuel capacity for longer range. A B-737-200C (Convertible) allowed for conversion between passenger and cargo use. The B-737-200 is capable of operating from unimproved or unpaved landing strips. (A gravel-kit modification permits landing on gravel runways.)
Boeing 737 Classic Series
In the 1980s Boeing built the B-737-300, -400, and -500 models. This Classic Series also added capacity and used CFM56 turbofan engines with significant gains in fuel economy, and reduction in engine noise. Boeing also retrofitted the B-737-300SP (Special Performance) jets with Blended Winglets. Winglets (wing tip extensions) enhanced range, fuel efficiency and takeoff performance while lowering engine maintenance costs and noise.
The B-737-400 was a stretched -300 used by charter airlines.
Alaska Airlines converted a B-737-400F to an all cargo aircraft to
handle 10 pallets.
Boeing 737 Next Generation
The B-737-600 was designed to compete with the new Airbus A320, and also to replace airlines' DC-9s. This was the only B-737 that didn't include winglets as an option.
The B-737-700ER seats up to 149 passengers in an all economy configuration, with a maximum range of over 5,500 nautical miles. (The longest range for a B-737), A B-737-700C was also produced in which the seats can be removed to carry cargo. (A large cargo door is on the left side of the fuselage)
The B-737-800 is a stretched version and seats up to 189 passengers in one class. When McDonnell Douglas merged with Boeing, this B-737 ended the production of the MD-80 and MD-90 jets.
The B-737-900 is the longest and most powerful B-737. The B-737-900ER has a seating capacity of up to 220 passengers. Additional fuel capacity and standard winglets improved the maximum range.
The Boeing 737 is operated by more than 500 airlines flying to
1,200 destinations in 190 countries.
The Boeing B-737 is the only narrow-body airliner in production, with the B-737-600, -700, -800, and -900ER variants being built. The CFM56 turbofan engine was an engineering challenge because of the low ground clearance of the B-737. The problem was solved by placing the engine ahead of (rather than below) the wing, and by moving engine accessories to the sides (rather than the bottom) of the engine pod, giving the B-737 a distinctive non-circular air intake.
A new re-engined and redesigned version, the B-737 MAX, is set to be available in 2017.
The B-737 is the best-selling jet airliner in the history of aviation. Prior best seller was the B-727. There are an average of over 1,250 B-737s in the air at any given time, with two departing or landing somewhere every five seconds.
Aloha Airlines Flight 243
To show the reliability of the B-737, this incident is included, although it took place on April 28, 1988 (after the timeframe of the "1st and Best 25 years of ATC"). An Aloha Airlines B-737, flying between Hilo and Honolulu at 24,000' suffered extensive damage after an explosive decompression in flight, which tore off a large section of the top half of the aircraft skin extending from just behind the cockpit to the fore-wing area. The B-737 was still able to land safely at Kahului Airport on Maui.
Both pilots heard a loud "clap" or "whooshing" sound followed by a wind noise behind them. The first officer head was jerked backward and she said that insulation was floating in the cockpit. The Captain observed that the cockpit entry door was missing and saw blue sky where the first-class ceiling had been, and immediately took over the controls of the jet. The crew, and an Air Traffic Controller in the jump seat donned their oxygen masks, as the captain began an emergency descent. Because of the ambient noise, the pilots had to use hand signals to communicate. The first officer set the transponder to emergency code 7700.
The only fatality was a flight attendant who was blown out of the airplane. 65 passengers and crew were injured. (There were 90 passengers and a crew of five on board.) (1 Fatalitiy)
The NTSB concluded that the accident was caused by metal fatigue
exacerbated by crevice corrosion (salt and humidity in a coastal
environment). This B-737 was 19 years old at the time of the
accident and had sustained the 2nd most takeoff-landing cycles for a plane
in the world.
FAA instituted additional and more through mandatory maintenance
checks for aging aircraft.